Second wave. COVID-1901.07.2020
The Art of Pitching30.07.2020
In the process of the general pursuit of medical masks, business players (both investors and initiators of investment projects) missed one extremely important point: the prospects for the development of the segment of nonwovens and products based on them for the textile industry for 3-4 quarters of 2020 and the coming periods of development textile and light industry until 2030. According to industry experts and specialists of companies developing and producing polymer products, the development of cross-industry areas related to the wide and multi-functional use of universal non-woven materials creates promising prerequisites for the growth of textile and light industry worldwide.
Change in the textile picture of the world. The light industry with nonwovens is becoming such a developed and multifaceted industrial infrastructure that virtually no other industry can do without. The service cross-sectoral role of this business segment is significantly increasing due to the versatility and functionality of the already widespread and totally spreading nonwovens.
The rapidly developing once-sub-industry of non-woven materials, formally classified by code as a type of textile product, has de facto long surpassed the boundaries of the conventionally called “recycled fabric” both in the assortment nomenclature and in the methods and methods of using canvases, layers, pulps, composites and so on in all industries.
In 2019, the volume of nonwovens production in the world, according to preliminary data, showed an increase of + 1.5% compared to 2018. Compared to 2014, the volume of production grew by 2.6 times, the total average annual growth rate surpassed the indicator of 12 % for the last 5 years. In the long term, until 2025, production growth rates will amount to about 1.7% per year.
It should be noted that, despite the global interest in trade and production of medical masks, there is a tendency to increase the production of denser nonwovens, for example, for the segments of road construction, geotextiles and others.
We are witnessing a rapid change in the textile picture of the world. Total processing of hydrocarbon raw materials can become for the light industry “the main industrial channel”, which will be formed with significant raw material participation of the state.
The main competitor of nonwovens for the textile industry is, paradoxically, the food industry, which absorbs the main raw material – Polyethylene terephthalate, which is most in demand (due to its higher profitability) by food packaging manufacturers than by the textile sector, for example, for the production of fibers. Currently, the world imports of polyester fiber worth about $ 5.3 billion. The key supplier is China.
Global nonwovens market trends. The global market for polypropylene nonwovens is expected to reach 33.23 billion US dollars by 2025, increasing by an average of 6.4% per year. The growth in global demand for nonwovens made from polypropylene is associated with both industrial and consumer segments. The growth in demand for nonwovens is observed during the implementation of large infrastructure projects in the railway, road, aviation sectors, and in the water supply sector. Such properties of products made of polypropylene nonwoven materials, such as excellent absorption, softness, extensibility, strength, tear resistance and breathability, allow it to be successfully used in personal care. There is a growing demand for products such as baby diapers, sanitary napkins, sweatpants, wet and dry wipes. Due to the low saturation of the market, the growth rate of sales of personal care products, especially baby diapers, will be higher in the Asia-Pacific region: in developing countries, awareness of hygiene products is growing, and a habit of regular consumption is being formed.
Other reasons for increasing the production of nonwoven materials will be:
increased demand for protective clothing.
consistently high demand for nonwoven materials for the production of disposable medical products, including gowns, masks, sheets, sponges, dressings, napkins, mattresses for incubators, etc. In addition, an aging population in developed countries and an increase in chronic diseases have led to an increase in demand for nonwovens for the elderly, including for the treatment of adult incontinence.
growing demand for non-woven fabric based on polypropylene staple fibers in such areas of industrial filtration as mineral processing, oil and gas filtration, liquid cartridge and bag filters and water filtration.
the growing penetration of nonwovens into the automotive industry for side skirts, seats, airbags, cabin air filters, interior trim, rims, bonnet insulation and dashboard insulation
the growing demand for artificial grass, soil stabilizers, pavement coverings and greenhouse shading will stimulate sales of geotextiles.
Volatility in prices for raw materials such as oil, naphtha and propylene may be a constraining factor for the growth of the nonwovens market. As for the global PET production, in the last few years the PET market has changed dramatically due to M&A deals, the closure of some production facilities and the opening of new ones. China quickly increased its PET production capacity, accounting for about a third of world production. A surplus in the global PET market led to dumping by China, as a result of which anti-dumping and antisubsidating measures were introduced against it by a number of countries, such as the USA, Japan, South Africa and others.
The dependence of the nonwovens segment on the supply of raw materials poses a threat to the development of the industry, despite the good potential for increasing sales. The creation of PET production, which is so necessary for the breakthrough development of the nonwoven segment, is constantly being postponed, since the producers of raw materials have serious concerns about the economic feasibility of the project against the background of cheap Chinese raw materials. The state should play a key role in this story, since projects are of strategic importance and it will be impossible to implement it without the help of the regulator.
Nonwoven future. Nonwovens appeared not as an answer, but as a question. Not as a solution, but as an alternative. Not as a statement, but as a variation. Why? The global development of technical textiles, predetermined by interconnected backbone factors, is directly related to the total introduction and distribution of nonwovens in traditional and innovative industrial sectors. So, these factors are:
1) chemicalization of the industry;
2) redistribution of the use of agricultural land in favor of food products;
3) growing consumer loyalty to high quality synthetic products.
It is with these factors taken into account that today the textile and light industry acts in the context of the development of nonwovens as a significant intermediary in the creation of products (according to the “product-in-product” principle), and thanks to the development of technical textiles in general, an even greater prospect opens up for light industry enterprises as in intra-sectoral and inter-sectoral interaction (construction, automobile industry, military industry, medicine, agriculture and others).
The successful implementation of nonwoven products in household and specialized textile and clothing products formed the basis for a new industrial stage in the light industry, which is also reflected in the “Light Industry Development Strategy” in a number of countries.
In just a few years, we see how the picture of the “nonwoven world” has changed: from extremely skeptical and critical perception of nonwovens – to recognition and enthusiasm, from a limited understanding of implementation and use – to ubiquitous declarations about the limitless scope of nonwovens use. These are the scripts by which we analyze and evaluate the industry that has so unexpectedly escaped into intersectoral leaders from a nondescript textile sub-sector.
The risk of technological lag. Nonwovens are varied. Their production methods are different. The range of nonwovens and methods of their implementation are constantly expanding, and this process is only at an early stage. The development of technology, a new understanding of the environment and life activity leads all of us, as a consumer society, to an increase in the use of this multifaceted product. Often this happens unconsciously at the individual level. For example, in most technological processes today non-woven materials are used in one way or another: filtration of water, air, road laying, insulation of pipelines, etc., and so on, and the consumer simply does not realize that non-woven materials are already surrounding him literally everywhere and he is an active direct or indirect user of this product in one format or another.
Resource materials. “Resource materials” – and this is exactly what most modern non-woven materials are, because are produced from hydrocarbon raw materials (“fossil textiles”) – they open up broad prospects for the textile and light industry. Nonwovens today are becoming the driver of such mega-processes as respect for nature and resources; polyrecycling (not one-time processing, recycling, but reusable); energy saving; efficient use of natural resources. All this ultimately leads to the basic and basic needs of each of us, to a change in the quality of life, to the formation of a world of comfort and warmth.
Polyrecycling. One of the significant problems of light industry is waste and its processing. Recently, the problem has been actualized by government waste recycling policies. Nonwoven materials make it possible to realize non-waste production, to carry out a painless transition from natural raw materials to processed ones. The peculiarity of the total use of nonwoven materials and compositions with their use is that the processing can be not one-time (recycling), but reusable (polyrecycling: insulation for clothes – children’s mattress – filler for furniture – building insulation – hydroponics, and so on). This, in turn, is associated with the creation of safe, smart, multifunctional products with a variety of properties from recycled materials. This approach is a trend in the modern world textile and light industry, being a factor in ethical consumption and lean production. There is evidence of at least 80 out of 100 plastic bottles produced in the natural ecosystem: they do not go into recycling. Literally in practice, in an industrial ecosystem, this implies not the burial of long-term biodegradable chemical polymers into the soil and not incineration with emissions into the atmosphere, but reasonable repeated use.
Useful synthetics. Today, no one is surprised by the use of nonwovens in products for newborns, and even a decade ago, even the proposals for such implementations shocked consumers. The stereotype of the total harm of synthetics had to be literally overpowered, demonstrating the environmental and hygienic benefits, practicality, comfort and convenience of children’s mattresses, bumpers, envelopes for discharge, pillows, blankets for newborns and children under 3 years old.
No less interesting is the example that today has already become a significant experience, with non-woven insulation for clothes, which is recommended for use in the IV climate zone (-41°C).
Prior to conducting complex tests in Russia, Germany, Belgium, Spain, Switzerland and others, the expert community and manufacturing companies were extremely wary of initiatives to totally replace imported synthetic and natural domestic heaters (cotton, wool) with non-woven materials in defense and economic projects.
And only after receiving extensive laboratory and volunteer data – the process began to move. A new approach was also adopted to understanding the insulation as a whole, which must be dry, i.e. have zero hygroscopicity, in contrast to the previous approach, which assumed high hygroscopicity of natural fibers of plant and animal origin, previously used in the manufacture of, for example, insulation materials for clothing, taking into account mainly natural and mixed fabrics that predetermined the composition and functioning of the clothing package; and, also, the lack of technological membrane technologies at that time. However, it should be noted that in the gallery of synthetic fibers and their mixtures used today, there are highly effective developments with high (higher, for example, merino wool) indicators of hygroscopicity, more than 30%.
Currently, non-woven insulation materials are produced that cannot be frozen at natural temperatures (it does not harden, does not become brittle, does not lose its heat-shielding function).
Multidimensional tests in the Arctic and northern regions, carried out by various manufacturers, demonstrate the ability to use insulated footwear and clothing with non-woven materials in a comfort rating of -1000°C.
Abroad a sewing workshop. The integration of nonwovens with textile finishing (membranes, textile bags, grommet stitches, etc.) is underway in all sectors “outside sewing shops” and textile factories. However, these are products that are directly related to and dependent on the light industry.
For example, in low-rise construction, there is even a conditional definition: “a house covered with a blanket”, “building thermal blanket”. Despite the fact that the first successful and promising tests in the construction sector were completed in 2005, it took almost a decade to adapt building non-woven materials (external insulation, underfloor, interfloor and interventional insulation). And today we see that non-woven materials even replace cement mortar for masonry blocks in the construction of residential and household facilities. Sewn-off textile casings with non-woven thermal insulation for private pipelines, thermal mats for pouring cement at low temperatures, thermal dampers for laying communications in freezing soil are gaining great popularity. And non-woven building insulation and noise insulation are already firmly established in the neighboring industry, without actually being associated with textile products.
Today, high-tech nonwoven heaters are pushing the market for common thermal insulation materials (mineral wool, foam, waste paper, etc.).
Demand is impossible yesterday for the innovative ideas of erecting frame tent structures, glampings, hangars, farms, yurt and dome structures, quarter houses, along with, of course, with traditional applications in low-rise housing construction, in particular, wooden, block, frame.
The development of the “soft wall” technology, which is literally being sewn off, opens up wide opportunities for the light industry. Environmental friendliness, zero hygroscopicity, durability and convenience of working with non-woven materials make them today one of the most promising building materials, especially taking into account the raw hydrocarbon base, the active use of which can begin after the development of technologies for the mass processing of hydrocarbon raw materials (the ideology of Fossil Textile) – in fiber. However, the introduction of this technology, no doubt, will have an impact (along with construction) on all industries. The first steps in the world are already being made.
Fossil textiles. Much has been said about the need for high-quality primary staple man-made fibers for nonwovens in the last 10-15 years.
However, this is one of the most promising and least developed topics in the light industry – the production of man-made fibers from hydrocarbon raw materials for non-woven materials. Distribution receives the conventional definition of “fossil textiles”.
The development of the chemical industry for the textile light industry has a cumulative intersectoral effect: the appearance of its high-quality fiber from its raw materials will provoke the growth of diversified industries that use it for final and component products.
Today, the domestic nonwoven sub-industry (by type of industrial products: high-quality thermal protection, fillers, ecological building insulation, etc.) depends on global exports / imports.
In the world, even at this level of development of the staple chemical fiber application chain, there is a need for thousands of tons of polyester fiber (hollow, incomplete, periodically hollow; primary, secondary, polyrecycling).
The industry has already heard calls from industrialists to invest in Fossil Textile projects, to take into account the trends in strategic steps towards raw material independence.
The chemical industry for the textile light industry is one of the few really promising areas, taking into account the raw material base and developments of the past years, which can set in motion a number of industries and sub-sectors, primarily the textile and light industry, furniture and mattress industries, construction, agricultural and others.
Light industry is the path to nonwoven innovation. A rather short period of development of the technology and ideology of nonwovens has significantly influenced today’s production methods in a variety of areas: from the production of raw materials to the manufacture of household or industrial products. Clothing, shoes, decor, interiors, buildings, toys, filters … – perhaps there is no industry where today non-woven technologies would not be used, and light industry makes the way for them. The most incredible finds a few years ago today are boldly introduced not only in production, but also come into use: insulation of hives, push-ap, mortarless masonry, hydroponic bases for food greens and aeroponics for potatoes, postoperative pillows, decorative canvases, aquafilters, bonnets for collecting oily contaminants, clothing for clergymen, radiation-resistant screens, vertical lawns, acoustic panels, thermal protection of pipelines, dastarkhans, winter wedding dresses, sports mats, wall protectors, geo domes, cottages on wheels, micro-houses, soft walls, sets for handicrafts, insulated school uniforms, thermal insulation + arc protection + thermal protection, wetsuits for working in boiling water and frost, etc.
Present future. Given the cycles of industrial periods in industries, the development of nonwovens in light industry is just beginning. It can be argued that non-woven materials lay the groundwork for an even more cardinal transformation of this market segment.
These are: 1) composite materials (alternative to metal, stone, concrete), 2) materials with additional properties (bactericidal, adaptable to weight load, with protection from electromagnetic radiation, with thermoregulatory functions, with resistance to radiation, to UV radiation), 3) materials of the NG, CARBO series (“new generation”: with increased flame resistance, arc resistance, water-repellent effect), 4) polyrecycled nonwovens designed to maximize the useful life of nonwovens and save resources for future generations, 5) projects of the formation “WITHOUT FABRICS “, providing for the creation of products mainly or exclusively with the use of various types and types of nonwoven materials without the use of fabrics or with a significant reduction in their use; 6) multifunctional universal self-regulating materials of the TERMO generation; 7) smart-nonwoven (smart nonwovens, controlled technologies, “compliant” materials), etc.
The projects of textile breakthrough initiatives and the work of researchers and entrepreneurs offer whole cases of revolutionary, non-standard and futuristic solutions for the application and implementation of non-woven materials in light industry products.
Here are just a few of them: spraying insulation on finished products and / or fabrics according to the meltblown principle, connecting a heating powered by the energy of the body dynamics, airgel composites, ultra-thin volumetric non-woven insulation (20 g / m2) with an assigned functionality, thixotropic technologies, futuristic combinations of materials and methods for combining them. All this leads to a change in the understanding of the textile as such, its functions. And we see how significantly in recent years the materials and objects surrounding a person, everyday life, environment, in fact, materials and products have changed.
Intelligent fiber system. The main trend in the development of technical textiles for clothing, is currently the direction of IFS (intelligent fiber system). The idea meets the principles of materials science and technological mainstream: smart textile, “self-organization of the system”, adjustment to the environment. Innovative materials and technologies make the microclimate comfortable in the clothes area with passive user participation. It even changes the way we design clothes. This is especially relevant for countries located in several climatic zones, for the Arctic and Antarctica, as well as for actively explored outer space. The use of these developments and types of products is used in special developments in military, fashion, extreme, outdoor products. Developers are actively researching and implementing self-regulating nonwovens with special (highly efficient thermophysical) characteristics, which have a lower weight in comparison with modern types of thermal insulation materials, increased service life and reliability, versatility, and also have the ability to be an independent and / or reflected heat source under conditions exploitation used as a heat-insulating layer in winter clothing.
Thermo Evolution. The developed nonwoven materials are able to effectively carry out thermoregulation of the underwear space both at rest, providing thermal comfort and during physical activity of a person, absorbing excess moisture and facilitating its rapid removal from the underwear space.
So, there appeared universal and multifunctional materials that relate to the ideology of “Thermo Evolution”. Since 2016, manufacturers have presented the development of a “new generation” of thermal protective products.
But against this background of considerable interest in technical textile innovations and the indicated innovations, there is a steady demand for traditional thermal insulation materials. This phenomenon is easy to explain: these are platform solutions, on the basis of which modifications of materials with added properties are produced that are relevant for a particular task, trend and even consumer sentiment. In this regard, modern non-woven materials manifest themselves as highly adaptive and combinatorial foundations on which new products are based.
This direction is the most promising, taking into account the experience gained in the production, processing and use of polymers (in particular, polyesters), as well as hydrocarbon reserves, from which primary components are created for the production of chemical fibers. This topic has received a significant response as the concept of “Fossil Textiles”, in which leading scientists, manufacturers, businessmen and researchers of technical textiles joined the discussion. Further development of raw materials will invariably lead to the improvement of protective products (in a broad sense) and personal protective equipment (in particular) in line with the “Evolution of THERMO”.
Breakthrough technologies. The evolution of THERMO is a progressive look at advanced non-woven safety and professional thermal protection technologies for workwear, footwear, uniforms and outdoor products. The concept opens up broad opportunities for textile manufacturers in absolutely all markets.
Non-woven material is an integral thermal insulation component that predetermines a number of features of finished technological products. That is why the emergence of a number of evolutionary lines in the products of industry leaders.
Given the development of the economy and the light industry segment, government and corporate structures will soon become the main consumers of evolutionary nonwovens. It is for them that effective nonwovens are developed for insulated uniforms and uniforms, as well as for overalls and uniforms for employees of leading manufacturing companies.
Obviously in this context, the industry is looking not so much for innovation as such, but for property, quality, consumer value. Marketing legend, which even a decade ago dominated the positioning of products, is going to the background. It can be assumed that this is why non-woven fabric manufacturers are increasingly focusing on the real main advantages and features of synthetic products, such as: volume recovery, lightness, recoverable / reversible volume, softness, breathability, temperature control, thermal stabilization, preservation of comfortable heat and humidity level, protection against thermal risks of electric arc effects, environmental friendliness, safety, ease of cutting, the possibility of combinations with any types of materials, non-flammability, flame retardation (or pyrolysis, index 3), antistatic, non-toxic, the ability to work without protective equipment, unlimited service life , multiple use (polyrecycling), ease of transportation, warehousing, storage, research and a positive background of implementations, etc. All this actualizes the role of certification and standardization, fundamental and applied research of nonwovens.
Next step. Producers and consumers are interested in “next step” products, high-tech chemical fibers that meet not the “fashion of the past” but “properties of the future”.
It is important for the industry community to strengthen cross-sectoral ties, promote the total introduction of nonwoven materials made from chemical fibers, and carry out R&D work on integrated industrial polyrecycling.
To date, conceptual issues have ripened, the solution of which depends not only on the development of the industry, but also on the development of the state, the fate of people, development of territories, industrial introductions, the emergence of new types of products, and, as a result, as an industrial-system inevitability – the competitiveness of light industry and its export potential.
Case example: the instant and unpredictable growth of nonwovens for various types of masks and filters in China, the State Council of State at the level of global manufacturers raised the issue of ensuring adequate supply of masks in connection with the coronavirus epidemic.
The issues raised are directly consistent with the national idea, with the wealth obtained for us, for this moment by previous generations, the reserves provided for us and our children by centuries of development and annexation of territories.
Having raw materials for a wide variety of technical textiles, the state mainly uses what has already proven its viability over the past few decades, cautiously accepting the new and unknown. One of the reasons is the routine in comprehending and processing scientific and research data, successful industrial experience, breakthrough ideas, and insufficient attention to the most successful and promising implementations.
“Fossil Textiles” gives all the reasons for the next step of the industry, taking into account the raw material threats, global trends 2050 and limitless vacant niches!
The development of nonwoven materials entails a change in the regulatory and certification framework. And here it is important to make the “next steps” without gross mistakes or ill-considered decisions. For example, market players have actively joined in solving the problem of a controversial and largely controversial draft of an international standard dedicated to the use of chemical fiber less than 0.11 tex in insulated overalls for the production of nonwovens, and the properties and quality of products may deteriorate with a predicted higher cost and delicate processing. , which is unacceptable for the production of personal protective equipment.
R&D. It is obvious that the creation of new products, innovative products with breakthrough properties, high-tech products is unthinkable without research, without a scientific approach, without tests systematically conducted to identify more and more new properties and qualities of products, which continue to be outstanding, but are perceived as innovation.
Let’s note one more important nuance. Of course, nonwovens existed and were actively marketed in the 90s. The synthetic winterizer by the beginning of the 2000s was entrenched in consumer consciousness.
However, how, in what context did it gain a foothold? Recall: low-quality material, cheap, unreliable, untested. This general definition was associated with “bad stuff,” waste padding. The synthetic winterizer was a cheap analogue of natural fillers in connection with the approach of “secondary material perception” (the principle of waste-free production), because it is obvious that in the manufacture of synthetic fibers and threads for the production of synthetic winterizers there was “polyester rejection”, i.e. what remained as scrap or substandard after the release of the warp for polyester yarns.
Manufacturers did not dare to investigate the synthetic winterizer in many aspects – they simply did not have such tasks: the disadvantages and disadvantages, alas, were obvious even without scientific research. In this context, the emergence of fundamentally new materials, with a new approach to the analysis and identification of properties was predetermined by a negative background, on which, as on fertile soil, an innovative product flourished.
Thermal insulation safety. The issue of thermal insulation human safety remains relevant. And this, perhaps, is the main task for the development of light industry in the non-woven mainstream. Creation of new types of thermal insulation products, as well as the creation of new types of clothing. Both new and modified materials are on sale today. With the advent of efficient technologies and materials, new possibilities of sewing and designing clothes, a set of thermal insulating properties is formed based on three basic concepts: 1. “Universal”, 2. “Zoned”, 3. “Polymodular”. Thermal insulation non-woven materials have led to the emergence of new “packages” of clothing. For example, with membrane thermal and moisture-wicking fabrics for upper and lining fabrics, which allow maintaining different temperature and temperature intervals between the environment and human skin (thermal insulation is becoming thinner and more effective). The principle of biomimetics, or biomimicry, also finds its place in thermal insulation clothing. Innovative relevance. World developers are introducing polyurethane-based polymer coatings with shape memory. Distribution is gained by integrated thermo-insulating clothing using electric electric heating, membrane and childless technologies, climate control, clothing space, three-dimensional tissue design, breathing function (nano-, micropores), thermal insulation with external dated body states (t°C and % humidity) and children’s clothing, and clothing for people.
Intensive innovation. “Intensive innovation” opens up new challenges for industry and science to create synthetic materials and types of effective clothing. Prospects are being updated by programs for the exploration of the Arctic, Antarctic and outer space.
The question of the “next step” of textile and light is relevant today for production, business, science and education. Foresight analysis and a futuristic forecast for the design and implementation of innovative materials is impossible without a new look at the development of the industry in inter-industry cooperation, which predetermines “ahead of the curve.”
The readiness of light industry enterprises to join in the revival of the industry and business development presupposes a new look at personnel training, which must be applied in nature, as well as a new approach to the study of materials. Comprehensive activity should be formalized in the scheme: “Ideas – into goods!”
The question of the “next step” is raised for three main reasons: 1) new unique technologies for the development and serial implementation of various non-woven materials of the highest quality have been mastered; 2) against the background of a general lag behind industrial leaders, the unresolved personnel and scientific research industry issues, frozen on the fragmented interests of science, business, production and education, can lead to total dependence on textile imports and the complete impossibility to take the “next step”; 3) “next step” can be predetermined by the main advantage – raw materials.
By now, industrial niches that were previously considered experimental or innovative have been confidently mastered (insulation for clothes, filler for home textiles, insulation and sound-proof material for construction and interior work, filler for upholstered furniture, mattresses, children’s and medical products, insulation and filler for outdoor products, filter material, insulation for shoes and others). Even application in orbit, on a space station, is already a “fact of the past”. Therefore, the “next step” is expected. How is it predetermined at the level of macroeconomic processes and global events in the development of the world economy? The answer is obvious.
What to do? In proposals for the development of the industry and intersectoral relations, the emphasis is deliberately placed on technical textiles, as one of the most promising and, alas, insufficiently scientifically researched and studied areas; not only on previous versions of concepts and current analysis of the state of the industry, but also on newly introduced industry data. In the list of initiatives for the development of the direction of nonwovens, the segment analysts propose to strengthen the role of science, research, to emphasize a number of works on materials science. The role of the state was also noted in the analysis of the situation on the nonwoven market and the forecast for 2020. So, a further increase in demand for innovative and smart textiles, composite technologies, polymers, and the expansion of non-woven materials are predicted.
Medicine, auto industry, textile and light industry, furniture and mattress industries, road construction, etc. – nonwovens based on hydrocarbons, “fossil textiles” are a limitless industrial niche of any state. Socially, such projects are justified and supported in connection with the promising possibilities of oil processing – into chemical fibers, as well as lean recycling and polyrecycling of products.
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